For this time i'll explain regarding safe navigation watch on board. This is the very important for navigator to navigate safely ship from point A to point B. Lets we discuss and share together what is safe navigation watch on board....
1. What are the duties of a watchkeeping navigational officer and procedures required to keep a safe navigational watch.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall:
• keep the watch on the bridge;
• in no circumstances leave the bridge until properly relieved;
• continue to be responsible for the safe navigation of the ship, despite the presence of the master on the bridge, until informed specifically that the master has assumed that responsibility and this is mutually understood; and
notify the master when in any doubt as to what action to take in the interest of safety.
During the watch the course steered, position and speed shall be checked at sufficiently frequent intervals, using any available navigational aids necessary, to ensure that the ship follows the planned course.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall have full knowledge of the location and operation of all safety and navigational equipment on board the ship and shall be aware and take account of the operating limitations of such equipment.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall not be assigned or undertake any duties which would interfere with the safe navigation of the ship.
Officers of the navigational watch shall make the most effective use of all navigational equipment at their disposal.
When using radar, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall bear in mind the necessity to comply at all times with the provisions on the use of radar contained in the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, in force.
In cases of need the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall not hesistate to use the helm, engines and sound signalling apparatus. However, timely notice of intended variations of engine speed shall be given where possible or effective use made of UMS engine controls provided on the bridge in accordance with the applicable procedures.
Officers of the navigational watch shall know the handling characteristics of their ship, including its stopping distances, and should appreciate that other ships may have different handling characteristics.
A proper record shall be kept during the watch of the movements and activities relating to the navigation of the ship.
It is of special importance that at all times the officer in charge of the navigational watch ensures that a proper look-out is maintained. In a ship with a separate chart room the officer in charge of the navigational watch may visit the chart room, when essential, for a short period for the necessary performance of navigational duties, but shall first ensure that it is safe to do so and that proper look-out is maintained.
Operational tests of shipboard navigational equipment shall be carried out at sea as frequently as practicable and as circumstances permit, in particular before hazardous conditions affecting navigation are expected. Whenever appropriate, these tests shall be recorded. Such tests shall also be carried out prior to port arrival and departure.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall make regular checks to ensure that:
• the person steering the ship or the automatic pilot is steering the correct course;
• the standard compass error is determined at least once a watch and, when possible, after any major alteration of course; the standard and gyro-compasses are frequently compared and repeaters are synchronized with their master compass;
• the automatic pilot is tested manually at least once a watch;
• the navigation and signal lights and other navigational equipment are functioning properly;
• the radio equipment is functioning properly in accordance with paragraph 86 of this section; and
• the UMS controls, alarms and indicators are functioning, properly.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall bear in mind the necessity to comply at all times with the requirements in force of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, (SOLAS) 1974. The officer of the navigational watch shall take into account:
• the need to station a person to steer the ship and to put the steering into manual control in good time to allow any potentially hazardous situation to be dealt with in a safe manner; and
• that with a ship under automatic steering it is highly dangerous to allow a situation to develop to the point where the officer in charge of the navigational watch is without assistance and has to break the continuity of the look-out in order to take emergency action.
Officers of the navigational watch shall be thoroughly familiar with the use of all electronic navigational aids carried, including their capabilities and limitations, and shall use each of these aids when appropriate and shall bear in mind that the echo-sounder is a valuable navigational aid.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall use the radar whenever restricted visibility is encountered or expected, and at all times in congested waters having due regard to its limitations.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall ensure that range scales employed are changed at sufficiently frequent intervals so that echoes are detected as early as possible. It shall be borne in mind that small or poor echoes may escape detection.
Whenever radar is in use, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall select an appropriate range scale and observe the display carefully, and shall ensure that plotting or systematic analysis is commenced in ample time.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall notify the master immediately:
• if restricted visibility is encountered or expected;
• if the traffic conditions or the movements of other ships are causing concern;
• if difficulty is experienced in maintaining course;
• on failure to sight land, a navigation mark or to obtain soundings by the expected time;
• if, unexpectedly, land or a navigation mark is sighted or a change in soundings occurs;
• on breakdown of the engines, propulsion machinery remote control, steering gear of any essential navigation equipment, alarm or indicator;
• if the radio equipment malfunctions;
• in heavy weather, if in any doubt about the possibility of weather damage;
• if the ship meets any hazard to navigation, such as ice or a derelict; and
• in any other emergency or if in any doubt.
Despite the requirement to notify the master immediately in the foregoing circumstances, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall in addition not hesitate to take immediate action for the safety of the ship, where circumstances so require.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall give watchkeeping personnel all appropriate instructions and information which will ensure the keeping of a safe watch, including a proper look-out.
2. The correct procedure for handing over and receiving a watch at sea including reasons for not handing over the watch.
Prior to taking over the watch relieving officers shall satisfy themselves as to the ship’s estimated or true position and confirm its intended track, course and speed, and UMS controls as appropriate and shall note any dangers to navigation expected to be encountered during their watch.
Relieving officers shall personally satisfy themselves regarding the:
• standing orders and other special instructions of the master relating to navigation of the ship,
• position, course, speed and draught of the ship;
• prevailing and predicted tides, currents, weather, visibility and the effect of these factors upon course and speed;
• procedures for the use of main engines to manoeuvre when the main engines are on bridge control; and
• navigational situation, including but not limited to:
the operational condition of all navigational and safety equipment being used or likely to be used during the watch,
the errors of gyro and magnetic compasses,
the presence and movement of ships in sight or known to be in the vicinity,
the conditions and hazards likely to be encountered during the watch, and
the possible effects of heel? trim, water density and squat on under keel clearance.
If at any time the officer in charge of the navigational watch is to be relieved when a manoeuvre or other action to avoid any hazard is taking place, the relief of that officer shall be deferred until such action has been completed.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall not hand over the watch to the relieving officer if there is reason to believe that the latter is not capable of carrying out the watchkeeping duties effectively, in which case the master shall be notified.
The relieving officer shall ensure that the members of the relieving watch are fully capable of performing their duties, particularly as regards their adjustment to night vision. Relieving officers shall not take over the watch until their vision is fully adjusted to the light conditions.
3. Describe any item needing special attention during watchkeeping under different conditions and in different areas.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall take frequent and accurate compass bearings of approaching ships as a means of early detection of risk of collision and bear in mind that such risk may sometimes exist even when an appreciable bearing change is evident, particularly when approaching a very large ship or a tow or when approaching a ship at close range. The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall also take early and positive action in compliance with the applicable International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 and subsequently check that such action is having the desired effect.
In clear weather, whenever possible, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall carry out radar practice.
When restricted visibility is encountered or expected, the first responsibility of the officer in charge of the navigational watch is to comply with the relevant rules of the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 with particular regard to the sounding of fog signals, proceeding at a safe speed and having the engines ready for immediate manoeuvre. In addition, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall:
.1. inform the master;
.2. post a proper look-out;
.3. exhibit navigation lights; and
.4. operate and use the radar.
In hours or darkness
The master and the officer in charge of the navigational watch when arranging look-out duty shall have due regard to the bridge equipment and navigational aids available for use, their limitations; procedures and safeguards implemented.
Coastal and congested waters
The largest scale chart on board, suitable for the area and corrected with the latest available information, shall be used. Fixes shall be taken at frequent intervals, and shall be carried out by more than one method whenever circumstances allow.
The officer in charge of the navigational watch shall positively identify all relevant navigation marks.
Navigation with pilot on board
Despite the duties and obligations of pilots, their presence on board does not relieve the master or officer in charge of the navigational watch from their duties and obligations for the safety of the ship. The master and the pilot shall exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions and the ship’s characteristics. The master and/or the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall co-operate closely with the pilot and maintain an accurate check on the ship’s position and movement.
If in any doubt as to the pilot’s actions or intentions, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall seek clarification from the pilot and, if doubt still exists, shall notify the master immediately and take whatever action is necessary before the master arrives.
Ship at anchor
If the master considers it necessary, a continuous navigational watch shall be maintained at anchor. While at anchor, the officer in charge of the navigational watch shall:
.1. determine and plot the ship’s position on the appropriate chart as soon as practicable;
.2. when circumstances permit, check at sufficiently frequent intervals whether the ship is remaining securely at anchor by taking bearings of fixed navigation marks or readily identifiable shore objects;
.3. ensure that proper look-out is maintained;
.4. ensure that inspection rounds of the ship are made periodically;
.5. observe meteorological and tidal conditions and the state of the sea;
.6. notify the master and undertake all necessary measures if the ship drags anchor;
.7. ensure that the state of readiness of the main engines and other machinery is in accordance with the master’s instructions;
.8. if visibility deteriorates, notify the master;
.9. ensure that the ship exhibits the appropriate lights and shapes and that appropriate sound signals are made in accordance with all applicable regulations; and
.10. take measures to protect the environment from pollution by the ship and comply with applicable pollution regulations.